Protein complex info
Complex group namePcG and PcG-like
Complex namePRC2
Status of entryUpdated
Genes in complexAEBP2#11, (JARID2#291|PHF1#432|MTF2#375|PHF19#437)?, EED#181, (EZH1#212|EZH2#213), SUZ12#600, (RBBP4#497|RBBP7#499)
Alternative names#
Proteins involvedEED, EZH1, SUZ12, RBBP4, RBBP7, JARID2 or PHF1 or PCL and AEBP2
Uniprot IDs of involved proteins
PMID for reference on complex composition20075857, 23104054, 23273982, 22325352, 24217316
FunctionPolycomb group complex
PMID for reference on function15225548, 20075857
Target molecule typehistone
Specific targetH3K9, H3K27
ProductH3K9me1, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K27me1, H3K27me2, H3K27me3
PMID for reference on targets and products15225548, 20075857
CommentMethylates 'Lys-27' of histone H3, leading to transcriptional repression of the affected target gene. Able to mono-, di- and trimethylate 'Lys-27' of histone H3 to form H3K27me1, H3K27me2 and H3K27me3, respectively. Required for embryonic stem cell derivation and self-renewal, suggesting that it is involved in safeguarding embryonic stem cell identity. Compared to EZH2-containing complexes, EZH1 is less abundant in embryonic stem cells, has weak methyltransferase activity and plays a less critical role in forming H3K27me3, which is required for embryonic stem cell identity and proper differentiation. The PRC2/EED-EZH1 is less abundant than the PRC2/EED-EZH2 complex, has weak methyltransferase activity and compacts chromatin in the absence of the methyltransferase cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM). The PRC2/EED-EZH2 complex may also serve as a recruiting platform for DNA methyltransferases, thereby linking two epigenetic repression systems. Genes repressed by the PRC2/EED-EZH2 complex include HOXC8, HOXA9, MYT1 and CDKN2A.